0
0

Chapter 8. Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Leonard Abbeduto, Ph.D.; Sally Ozonoff, Ph.D.; Angela Thurman, Ph.D.; Andrea McDuffie, Ph.D.; Julie Schweitzer, Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585625031.945930

Sections

Excerpt

In this chapter, we consider the DSM-5 diagnostic class of neurodevelopmental disorders (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Included in this class are disorders that emerge during childhood or adolescence and that affect behaviors important for functioning in formal and informal contexts, from school to social interactions. The disorders in this class differ from one another in the specific domains of behavior impacted, with some disorders impacting multiple domains (e.g., intellectual disabilities) and other disorders being more circumscribed in their effects (e.g., specific learning disorder, motor disorders). Critical to the diagnosis of all neurodevelopmental disorders is the assessment of multiple domains of behavior, including cognition, language, and motor behaviors, with consideration of delays in achieving developmental milestones and/or the display of atypical behaviors.

Your session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.
Sign In to Access Full Content
 
Username
Password
Sign in via Athens (What is this?)
Athens is a service for single sign-on which enables access to all of an institution's subscriptions on- or off-site.
Not a subscriber?

Subscribe Now/Learn More

PsychiatryOnline subscription options offer access to the DSM-5 library, books, journals, CME, and patient resources. This all-in-one virtual library provides psychiatrists and mental health professionals with key resources for diagnosis, treatment, research, and professional development.

Need more help? PsychiatryOnline Customer Service may be reached by emailing PsychiatryOnline@psych.org or by calling 800-368-5777 (in the U.S.) or 703-907-7322 (outside the U.S.).

Anchor for Jump
Medications commonly used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

References

Abbeduto L, McDuffie A: Genetic syndromes associated with intellectual disabilities, in Handbook of Medical Neuropsychology: Applications of Cognitive Neuroscience. Edited by Armstrong CL, Morrow L. New York, Springer, 2010, pp 193–221
 
Abbeduto L, Brady N, Kover S: Language development and fragile X syndrome: profiles, syndrome-specificity, and within-syndrome differences. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 13:36–46, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Abrahams BS, Geschwind DH: Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology. Nat Rev Genet 9:341–355, 2008
[PubMed]
 
American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Support, 11th Edition. Washington, DC, American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 2010
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1994
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000
 
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013
 
Arnold LE, Aman MG, Cook AM, et al: Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1196–1205, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Berninger VW, May MO: Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment for specific learning disabilities involving impairments in written and/or oral language. J Learn Disabil 44:167–183, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Berry-Kravis E, Knox A, Hervey C: Targeted treatments for fragile X syndrome. J Neurodev Disord 3:193–210, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Berument SK, Rutter M, Lord C, et al: Autism screening questionnaire: diagnostic validity. Br J Psychiatry 175:444–451, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Billstedt E, Gillberg IC, Gillberg C: Autism after adolescence: population-based 13‑ to 22-year follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism diagnosed in childhood. J Autism Dev Disord 35:351–360, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Bishop DVM: Pragmatic language impairment: a correlate of SLI, a distinct subgroup, or part of the autistic continuum? in Speech and Language Impairments in Children: Causes, Characteristics, Intervention, and Outcome. Edited by Bishop DVM, Leonard LB. East Sussex, UK, Psychology Press, 2000, pp 99–113
 
Boyle CA, Boulet S, Schieve LA, et al: Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics 127:1034–1042, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Cantell MH, Smyth MM, Ahonen TP: Two distinct pathways for developmental coordination disorder: persistence and resolution. Hum Mov Sci 22:413–431, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in persons aged 6–17 years—United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58:581–585, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 sites, United States, 2008. MMWR Surveill Summ 61:1–19, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Chronis AM, Jones HA, Raggi VL: Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 26:486–502, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Compton DL, Fuchs LS, Fuchs D, et al: The cognitive and academic profiles of reading and mathematics learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil 45:79–95, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Cordeiro L, Ballinger E, Hagerman R, et al: Clinical assessment of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in fragile X syndrome: prevalence and characterization. J Neurodev Disord 3:57–67, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Dawson G, Rogers S, Munson J, et al: Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics 125:e17–e23, 2010
[PubMed]
 
de Cock M, Maas YG, van de Bor M: Does perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors induce autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders? Acta Paediatr 101:811–818, 2012
[PubMed]
 
De Giacomo A, Fombonne E: Parental recognition of developmental abnormalities in autism. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 7:131–136, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Deprey L, Ozonoff S: Assessment of psychiatric conditions in autism spectrum disorders, in Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Edited by Goldstein S, Naglieri J, Ozonoff S. New York, Guilford, 2009, pp 290–317
 
Drew LJ, Crabtree GW, Markx S, et al: The 22q11.2 microdeletion: fifteen years of insights into genetic and neural complexity of psychiatric disorders. Int J Dev Neurosci 29:259–281, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Eddy CM, Rickards HE, Cavanna AE: Treatment strategies for tics in Tourette syndrome. Ther Adv Neurol Disord 4:25–45, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Elliott CD: Differential Ability Scales—II. San Antonio, TX, Pearson, 2007
 
Elsabbagh M, Divan G, Koh YJ, et al: Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Res 5:160–179, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Fein D, Dixon P, Paul J, et al: Brief report: pervasive developmental disorder can resolve into ADHD: case illustrations. J Autism Dev Disord 35:525–534, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Filipek P, Accardo PJ, Ashwal S, et al: Practice parameter: screening and diagnosis of autism. Neurology 55:468–479, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Fombonne E: Epidemiological trends in rates of autism. Mol Psychiatry 7 (suppl 2):S4–S6, 2002
[PubMed]
 
Fombonne E, Chakrabarti S: No evidence for a new variant of measles-mumps-rubella-induced autism. Pediatrics 108:E58, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Frith U: Emmanuel Miller lecture: confusions and controversies about Asperger syndrome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45:672–686, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Ganos C, Kahl U, Schunke O, et al: Are premonitory urges a prerequisite of tic inhibition in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 83:975–978, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Gerber JS, Offit PA: Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses. Clin Infect Dis 48:456–461, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Gerber PJ: The impact of learning disabilities on adulthood: a review of the evidence-based literature for research and practice in adult education. J Learn Disabil 45:31–46, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Ghaziuddin M: Asperger disorder in the DSM-5: sacrificing utility for validity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50:192–193, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Gierut J: Phonological intervention: the how or the what? in Phonological Disorders in Children: Clinical Decision Making in Assessment and Intervention. Edited by Kamhi A, Pollock K. Baltimore, MD, Paul H Brookes, 2005, pp 201–210
 
Gillberg C: Autistic children growing up: problems during puberty and adolescence. Dev Med Child Neurol 26:125–129, 1984
[PubMed]
 
Gilchrist A, Green J, Cox A, et al: Development and current functioning in adolescents with Asperger syndrome: a comparative study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42:227–240, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Gizer IR, Ficks C, Waldman ID: Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 126:51–90, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Glessner JT, Wang K, Cai G, et al: Autism genome-wide copy number variation reveals ubiquitin and neuronal genes. Nature 459:569–573, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Goldberg WA, Osann K, Filipek PA, et al: Language and other regression: assessment and timing. J Autism Dev Disord 33:607–616, 2003
[PubMed]
 
Goldstein S, Schwebach AJ: The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a retrospective chart review. J Autism Dev Disord 34:329–339, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Goswami U, Wang HL, Cruz A, et al: Language-universal sensory deficits in developmental dyslexia: English, Spanish, and Chinese. J Cogn Neurosci 23:325–337, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Grigorenko E: Speaking genes or genes for speaking? Deciphering the genetics of speech and language.J Child Psychol Psychiatry 50:116–125, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Gunther JR, Sharp FR: Tourette syndrome, tic disorders, and comorbidities, in Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Edited by Hansen RL, Rogers SJ. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, pp 103–126
 
Gunther J, Tian Y, Stamova B, et al: Catecholamine-related gene expression in blood correlates with tic severity in Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Res 200:593–601, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Hall S, Oliver C, Murphy G: Self-injurious behavior in young children with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Dev Med Child Neurol 43:745–749, 2001
[PubMed]
 
Halmøy A, Klungsøyr K, Skjærven R, et al: Pre- and perinatal risk factors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 71:474–481, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Halperin JM, Bédard AC, Curchack-Lichtin JT: Preventive interventions for ADHD: a neurodevelopmental perspective. Neurotherapeutics 9:531–541, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Hansen RL, Ozonoff S, Krakowiak P, et al: Regression in autism: definitions, prevalence, and associated factors in the CHARGE study. Ambul Pediatr 8:25–31, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Happé F, Frith U: Debate and argument: how useful is the “PDD” label? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 32:1167–1168, 1991
[PubMed]
 
Henderson SE, Sugden DA, Barnett A: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition. San Antonio, TX, Pearson, 2007
 
Hertz-Picciotto I, Delwiche L: The rise in autism and the role of age at diagnosis. Epidemiology 20:84–90, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Hertz-Picciotto I, Croen LA, Hansen R, et al: The CHARGE study: an epidemiologic investigation of genetic and environmental factors contributing to autism. Environ Health Perspect 114:1119–1125, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Hinshaw SP, Owens EB, Zalecki C, et al: Prospective follow-up of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into early adulthood: continuing impairment includes elevated risk for suicide attempts and self-injury. J Consult Clin Psychol 80:1041–1051, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Howlin P, Goode S, Hutton J, et al: Adult outcome for children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45:212–229, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Johnson CP, Myers SM; American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Children With Disabilities: Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 120:1183–1215, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Jones LA, Campbell JM: Clinical characteristics associated with language regression for children with autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 40:54–62, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Kalb LG, Law JK, Landa R, et al: Onset patterns prior to 36 months in autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 40:1389–1402, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Kamhi AG: Treatment decisions for children with speech-sound disorders. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 37:271–279, 2006
[PubMed]
 
Kanner L: Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child 2:217–250, 1943
[PubMed]
 
Knight T, Steeves T, Day L, et al: Prevalence of tic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Neurol 47:77–90, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Kraft JT, Dalsgaard S, Obel C, et al: Prevalence and clinical correlates of tic disorders in a community sample of school-age children. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 21:5–13, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Lainhart JE: Psychiatric problems in individuals with autism, their parents, and siblings. Int J Psychiatry 11:278–298, 1999
 
Landau YE, Steinberg T, Richmand B, et al: Involvement of immunologic and biochemical mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Tourette’s syndrome. J Neural Transm 119:621–626, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Leckliter IN, Enriquez JL: Disorders of learning: dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, and other symbolic dysfunctions, in Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Edited by Hansen RL, Rogers SJ. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013, pp 227–256
 
Leckman JF, Bloch MH, Smith ME, et al: Neurobiological substrates of Tourette’s disorder.J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 20:237–247, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Lord C: Follow-up of two-year-olds referred for possible autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 36:1365–1382, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Lord C, Petkova E, Hus V, et al: A multisite study of the clinical diagnosis of different autism spectrum disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:306–313, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Lord C, Rutter M, DiLavore PC, et al: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) Manual. Torrance, CA, Western Psychological Services, 2012
 
Lotter V: Factors related to outcome in autistic children. J Autism Child Schizophr 4:263–277, 1974
[PubMed]
 
Lovaas OI: Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. J Consult Clin Psychol 55:3–9, 1987
[PubMed]
 
Macintosh KE, Dissanayake C: Annotation: The similarities and differences between autistic disorder and Asperger’s disorder: a review of the empirical evidence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 45:421–434, 2004
[PubMed]
 
Mammarella IC, Pazzaglia F: Visual perception and memory impairments in children at risk of nonverbal learning disabilities. Child Neuropsychol 16:564–576, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Mazefsky CA, Oswald DP, Day TN, et al: ASD, a psychiatric disorder, or both? Psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents with high-functioning ASD. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 41:516–523, 2012
[PubMed]
 
McEachin JJ, Smith T, Lovaas OI: Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. Am J Ment Retard 97:359–372, 1993
[PubMed]
 
McNaught KS, Mink JW: Advances in understanding and treatment of Tourette syndrome. Nat Rev Neurol 7:667–676, 2011
[PubMed]
 
McPheeters ML, Warren Z, Sathe N, et al: A systematic review of medical treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 127:e1312–e1321, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Mejia NI, Jankovic J: Secondary tics and Tou-ret-tism. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 27:11–17, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Miller B, McCardle P: Moving closer to a public health model of language and learning disabilities: the role of genetics and the search for etiologies. Behav Genet 41:1–5, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Nadig AS, Ozonoff S, Young GS, et al: A prospective study of response to name in infants at risk for autism. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161:378–383, 2007
[PubMed]
 
Nelson JM, Harwood H: Learning disabilities and anxiety: a meta-analysis. J Learn Disabil 44:3–17, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Onore C, Careaga M, Ashwood P: The role of immune dysfunction in the pathophysiology of autism. Brain Behav Immun 26:383–392, 2012
[PubMed]
 
O’Rourke JA, Scharf JM, Yu D, et al: The genetics of Tourette syndrome: a review. J Psychosom Res 67:533–545, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Osika W, Montgomery SM; Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study:Physical control and coordination in childhood and adult obesity: Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study. BMJ 337:a699, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Ozonoff S: Editorial perspective: autism spectrum disorders in DSM-5—an historical perspective and the need for change. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53:1092–1094, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Ozonoff S, Goodlin-Jones BL, Solomon M: Evidence-based assessment of autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 34:523–540, 2005a
[PubMed]
 
Ozonoff S, Williams BJ, Landa R: Parental report of the early development of children with regressive autism: the delays-plus-regression phenotype. Autism 9:461–486, 2005b
[PubMed]
 
Ozonoff S, Young GS, Carter A, et al: Recurrence risk for autism spectrum disorders: a Baby Siblings Research Consortium study. Pediatrics 128:e488–e495, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Perry R, Cohen I, DeCarlo R: Deterioration, autism, and recovery in two siblings. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:232–237, 1995
[PubMed]
 
Pinto-Martin JA, Levy SE, Feldman JF, et al: Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in adolescents born weighing< 2000 grams. Pediatrics 128:883–891, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Piven J, Harper J, Palmer P, et al: Course of behavioral change in autism: a retrospective study of high-IQ adolescents and adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:523–529, 1996
[PubMed]
 
Prior M, Leekam S, Ong B, et al: Are there subgroups within the autistic spectrum? A cluster analysis of a group of children with autistic spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39:893–902, 1998
[PubMed]
 
Rasmussen P, Gillberg C: Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, community-based study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:1424–1431, 2000
[PubMed]
 
Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network: Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in pervasive developmental disorders with hyperactivity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:1266–1274, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Rogers SJ, Dawson G: The Early Start Denver Model for Young Children with Autism: Promoting Language, Learning, and Engagement. New York, Guilford, 2010
 
Roid GH: Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition. Rolling Meadows, IL, Riverside, 2003
 
Ronald A, Hoekstra RA: Autism spectrum disorders and autistic traits: a decade of new twin studies. Am J Med Gen 15:255–274, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Rutledge KJ, van den Bos W, McClure SM, et al: Training cognition in ADHD: current findings, borrowed concepts, and future directions. Neurotherapeutics 9:542–558, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Rutter M, Bailey A, Lord C: Social Communication Questionnaire. Los Angeles, CA, Western Psychological Services, 2003a
 
Rutter M, Le Couteur A, Lord C: Autism Diag-nos-tic Interview—Revised. Los Angeles, CA, Western Psychological Services, 2003b
 
Sandin S, Hultman CM, Kolevzon A, et al: Advancing maternal age is associated with increased risk for autism: review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 51:477–486, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Scarborough H: Developmental relationships between language and reading: reconciling a beautiful hypothesis with some ugly facts, in The Connections Between Language and Reading Disabilities. Edited by Catts HW, Kamhi AG. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, 2005, pp 3–24
 
Schmidt R, Hansen R, Hartiala J, et al: Prenatal vitamins, one-carbon metabolism gene variants, and risk for autism. Epidemiology 22:476–485, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Shifrer D, Muller C, Callahan R: Disproportionality and learning disabilities: parsing apart race, socioeconomic status, and language. J Learn Disabil 44:246–257, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Shriberg L: Developmental phonological disorders: one or many, in Perspectives in Applied Phonology. Edited by Hodson B, Edwards M. Gaithersburg, MD, Aspen, 1997, pp 105–127
 
Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, et al: Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47:921–929, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Solanto MV, Marks DJ, Mitchell KJ, et al: Development of a new psychosocial treatment for adult ADHD. J Atten Disord 11:728–736, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Spreen O: Nonverbal learning disabilities: a critical review. Child Neuropsychol 17:418–443, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Stefanoff P, Wolanczyk T, Gawrys A, et al: Prevalence of tic disorders among schoolchildren in Warsaw, Poland. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 17:171–178, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Storch EA, Murphy TK, Geffken GR, et al: Reliability and validity of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. Psychol Assess 17:486–491, 2005
[PubMed]
 
Tian Y, Gunther JR, Liao IH, et al: GABA- and acetylcholine-related gene expression in blood correlate with tic severity and microarray evidence for alternative splicing in Tourette syndrome: a pilot study. Brain Res 1381:228–236, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Toll SW, Van der Ven SH, Kroesbergen EH, et al: Executive functions as predictors of math learning disabilities. J Learn Disabil 44:521–532, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Tomasi D, Volkow N: Abnormal functional connectivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 71:443–450, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Tomblin JB, Zhang X, Weiss A, et al: Dimensions of individual differences in communication skills among primary grade children, in Developmental Language Disorders: From Phenotypes to Etiologies. Edited by Rice M. Mahwah, NJ, Erlbaum, 2004, pp 53–76
 
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Data Analysis System (DANS): OMB #1820-0043: Children With Disabilities Receiving Special Education Under Part B of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act. 2011. Data updated as of July 15, 2012. Available at: www.ideadata.org/arc_toc13.asp#partbCC. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
 
Vismara LA, Rogers SJ: Behavioral treatments in autism spectrum disorder: what do we know? Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:447–468, 2010
[PubMed]
 
Volkmar F, Cook EH Jr, Pomeroy J, et al: Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents, and adults with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Working Group on Quality Issues. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38(suppl):32S–54S, 1999
[PubMed]
 
Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Kollins SH, et al: Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications. JAMA 302:1084–1091, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Waldon K, Hill J, Termine C, et al: Trials of pharmacological interventions for Tourette syndrome: a systematic review. Behav Neurol 26:265–273, 2013
[PubMed]
 
Warren Z, McPheeters ML, Sathe N, et al: A systematic review of early intensive intervention for autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 127:e1303–e1311, 2011
[PubMed]
 
Wechsler D: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th Edition. San Antonio, TX, Pearson, 2003
 
Wenzel C, Kleimann A, Bokemeyer S, et al: Aripiprazole for the treatment of Tourette syndrome: a case series of 100 patients. J Clin Psychopharmacol 32:548–550, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Wetherby AM, Woods J, Allen L, et al: Early indicators of autism spectrum disorders in the second year of life. J Autism Dev Disord 34:473–493, 2004
[PubMed]
 
White SW, Oswald D, Ollendick T, et al: Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Clin Psychol Rev 29:216–229, 2009
[PubMed]
 
Wilhelm S, Peterson AL, Piacentini J, et al: Randomized trial of behavior therapy for adults with Tourette syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69:795–803, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Willcutt G: The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Neurotherapeutics 9:490–499, 2012
[PubMed]
 
Williams K, Tuck M, Helmer M, et al: Diagnostic labelling of autism spectrum disorders in NSW. J Paediatr Child Health 44:108–113, 2008
[PubMed]
 
Wing L, Yeates SR, Brierley LM, et al: The prevalence of early childhood autism: comparison of administrative and epidemiological studies. Psychol Med 6:89–100, 1976
[PubMed]
 
Zigler E: Mental retardation. Science 157:578–579, 1967
[PubMed]
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).
Related Content
Articles
Books
The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, 5th Edition > Chapter 21.  >
Dulcan's Textbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry > Chapter 14.  >
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition > Chapter 0.  >
DSM-5™ Clinical Cases > Chapter 1.  >
Topic Collections
Psychiatric News
PubMed Articles
 
  • Print
  • PDF
  • E-mail
  • Chapter Alerts
  • Get Citation