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Chapter 23. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders

Thomas Kosten, M.D.; Thomas Newton, M.D.; Richard De La Garza II, Ph.D.; Colin Haile, M.D., Ph.D.
DOI: 10.1176/appi.books.9781585625031.729494

Sections

Excerpt

Humans have been using botanical and chemical substances to achieve altered states of consciousness for thousands of years. A majority of people in the world use at least one psychoactive substance, and many of these substances are ubiquitous within a culture (e.g., caffeine, tobacco). Most individuals engage in use without encountering difficulties, although a small percentage of them develop substance-related disorders that can lead to considerable burden and cost on many levels. For example, tobacco and alcohol use disorders together significantly contribute to the development of serious diseases (e.g., lung cancer, liver cancer) worldwide. In the United States, tobacco use in particular is the number one preventable cause of death.

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Substance use disorders: mechanisms of action.Note. Ca2+ = calcium ion; CB1 = cannabinoid receptors; Cl = chloride ion; DA = dopamine; DAT = dopamine transporter; GABA = γ-aminobutyric acid; METH/AMPH = methamphetamine/amphetamine; NMDA = N-methyl-d-aspartate; TH = tyrosine hydroxylase; VMAT = vesicular monoamine transporter.

Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale—Revised (-CIWA-Ar). Source Reference. Sullivan JT, Sykora K, Schneiderman J, Naranjo CA, Sellers EM: “Assessment of Alcohol Withdrawal: The Revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar).” British Journal of Addiction 84:1353–1357, 1989. Web Source. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Center for Health Care Evaluation (CHCE) Web Site (www.chce.research.va.gov/apps/PAWS/content/downloads.htm).

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Source. Reprinted from Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders J, et al.: AUDIT, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, 2nd Edition. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2001. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/WHO_MSD_MSB_01.6a.pdf Accessed July 30, 2006. May be reproduced without permission for noncommercial purposes.

Alcohol use disorder: disulfiram mechanism of action.

Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence.Source. Adapted from .
Anchor for Jump
DSM-5 substance-related disorders: classification
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Basic components of substance use disorder evaluation
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American Society of Addiction Medicine Patient Placement Criteria levels and dimensions
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Commonly used substances and their mechanism(s) of action
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Alcohol intoxication: clinical symptoms associated with blood alcohol concentration (BAC, mg/dL)
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Alcohol use disorders: useful questionnaires in clinical settings
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CAGE and TWEAK brief questionnaire screens
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Alcohol use disorders: diagnostic laboratory tests
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Consequences of chronic heavy alcohol consumption
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Behavioral therapies
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Medications indicated for the treatment of alcohol use disorder
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Management of acute opioid overdose
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Signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal
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Opioid detoxification medication protocols
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Sedative-hypnotics approved for use in the United States
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Signs and symptoms assessed by the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment (CSSA)
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Medications assessed as possible treatments for stimulant use disorder
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First-line pharmacotherapies approved for use for smoking cessation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration*

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