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Based on combined data from the 2002–2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, it is estimated that 7.6% (18.2 million) of persons age 12 years or older met the criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year. Data from the national Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study of the late 1980s indicate that lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence is as high as 14.7% (Regier et al. 1990). Estimates of financial impact from loss of productivity due to alcohol-related illness, premature deaths, and alcohol-related crimes are greater than $134 million per year (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2000).

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FIGURE 9–2. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).Source. Reprinted from Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders J, et al.: AUDIT, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, 2nd Edition. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization, 2001. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2001/WHO_MSD_MSB_01.6a.pdf Accessed July 30, 2006. May be reproduced without permission for noncommercial purposes.

FIGURE 9–3. Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol—Revised (CIWA-Ar).Note. CNS = central nervous system.Source. Adapted from Sullivan et al. 1989.
Table Reference Number
TABLE 9–17. Blood alcohol level and corresponding symptoms of intoxication in the nontolerant patient
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TABLE 9–18. DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for alcohol withdrawal
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TABLE 9–19. Laboratory abnormalities associated with harmful levels of drinking
Table Reference Number
TABLE 9–20. Comparison of U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence

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